In todays Integrated Circuit industry understanding of electronic devices is essential for both analog as well as digital electronic circuits. In digital circuits MOSFETs are considered as simple switches but in analog designs detailed understanding of the device is required because many of the second order effects directly impact the performance of circuit.
In the new generation of IC technologies the device sizes are shrinking these non ideal effects becomes more significant. In many of the circuit designs circuit designer has to decide which effects can be neglected in a given circuit, to decide this insight into device operation proves invaluable.
In this section we discuss the physics of electronic devices at elementary level covering the bare minimum that is necessary for integrated circuit designs. The ultimate goal is to develop a circuit model for the devices by formulating their operation. In order to accomplish this, good understanding of the underlying principles is required. Further, the structure of devices, their operations and derivation of I-V characteristics has been carried out. The capacitance model plays important role in deciding speed and frequency of operation for digital as well as analog integrated circuits. Therefore, detailed understanding of device operation is carried out.