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EXPERIMENT NO.1

Analysis of Dipole Antenna

Time

( min)

Content

Learning Aid / Methodology

Faculty Approach

Typical Student Activity

Skill / Competency Developed

10

Relevance and significance of experiment

Chalk & Talk , Presentation

Introduces, Facilitates, Monitors

Listens, Participates, Discusses

Knowledge, Communication, intrapersonal

20

Explanation of experiment

Chalk & Talk , Presentation

Introduces, Facilitates, Explains

Listens

Knowledge, Communication, intrapersonal, Application

60

Reading

Role play/ demonstration

Explains,

Monitors

Participates, Discusses

Debate, comprehension, Hands on experiment

20

Calculations

N/A

Explains,

Monitors

Participates, Discusses

Knowledge, Communication, Intrapersonal, Application

10

Results and conclusions

Keywords

Lists, Facilitates

Listens, Participates, Discusses

Knowledge, Communication, intrapersonal, Comprehension

Practical Session Plan


Title: Analysis of Dipole Antenna

Objectives: Mount and set up the connections of dipole antenna to analyze the performance parameters

Aim: 1) To sketch the radiation pattern of Dipole antenna.

2) To compute gain, beam width, return loss & impedance of Dipole antenna

Apparatus: Antenna, transmitter, receiver-stepper motor controller, pair of dipole antenna, stepper pod, connecting cables, direction coupler, slotted line, 20 db attenuator etc

Theory: Antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. There are different types of antenna like, wire antenna, slot antenna, reflector antenna, lens antenna & Microstrip antenna.

1) Basic type of antenna: Wire type of antenna

2) Subtype of antenna: Half Wavelength Dipole

3) Operating frequency of antenna: 1.25 GHz

4) Theoretical Information:

A dipole antenna is a radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a center-fed driven element. It consists of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space between them. The radio frequency voltage is applied to the antenna at the center, between the two conductors. These antennas are the simplest practical antennas from a theoretical point of view. They are used alone as antennas, notably in traditional "rabbit ears" television antennas, and as the driven element in many other types of antennas, such as the Yagi. Dipole antennas.

Procedure:

A) To plot the radiation pattern of dipole antenna in azimuth plane on polar plots.

1) Connect the dipole antenna to the tripod & set the transmitter frequency to 600 MHz

2) The length of antenna is c/2f=(3*10^8)\(2*600*10^6)=25cm end to end.

3) Connect another dipole antenna to stepper pod & set the receiver to 600 MHz +.Connect 20dB

attenuator at receiver side to avoid saturation & set the length of receiver dipole antenna same

as 25cm at both ends.

4 ) Rotate the dipole antenna of receiver end around its axis in steps of using stepper motor

controller .

5) The reading rotating receiver antenna is automatically saving the power received at each

rotation of antenna to the corresponding memory location .

6) Connect RS232 from receiver to computer & transfer the reading by enabling serial mode at

receiver .Hence radiation pattern is plotted on polar plot from which gain & beam width is

obtained.

7) Beam width is obtained on log plot at 3dB level.

B)Calculation of return loss using direction coupler:

1) Connect the direction coupler to the transmitter tripod to RF out connector.

2) Connect the antenna to the direction coupler to RF in connector.

3) Connect the receiver to the direction coupler at RF sample connector and insert attenuator.

4) Bring the transmitter & receiver to 600MHz and take the reading this will give forward power .

5) Now interchange the connection of transmitter tripod & antenna is connected at RF sample.

6) Now the transmitter tripod is at RFin and antenna is connected at RFout.

7) Note down the reading at receiving at same frequency (600MHz) this will give reverse power.

8) The return loss is hence obtained by Return loss=forward power-reverse.

C) Calculation of Impedance:-

1. Connect generator at 0 cm pointof slotted line. Set the frequency of source as 600 MHz. Hence free space wavelength lambda =20cm.

2. Connect short load at 20cm end of slotted line.

3. Move the probe from 0cm to 20cm that is generator to load end of line.

4. Observing Rx reading that goes Max to Min again Min to Max. Hence with short connected 1st minima

is at & 2nd minima is at .

5 . Now connect unknown load ( antenna) at 20cm end & measuring shift in minima. Observing

Whether minima has shifted towards load end or generator end.

6 . Thus with antenna connected at load end, 1st minima occurs at cm & 2nd occurs at cm.

7. Hence w.r.t short on slotted line the minima has shifted by cm towards load end when antenna is

Replaced with short.

8. Hence shift in minima /lambda =

9. For calculating VSWR, using directional coupler measuring Return loss of antenna.

10. Now using formula for calculating Reflection coefficient which is

R.L. = -20log

11. After calculating , calculating VSWR using formula

VSWR = 1+ Z / 1- Z

This gives VSWR which is

12 . Draw a circle on Smith chart with radius taking center of smith chart. This circle is called constant

VSWR circle.

13 With ratio of shift in minima /lambda = , rotating anticlockwise from left & locate on outer circle.

14 . Draw a line connecting to center of circle such that it crosses VSWR circle. This point is read as

as real part & as imaginary part.

15 . Hence normalized impedance is

16. Actual impedance is ( ) 50 = ohms.

Observations:

Sample Calculations:

Results:

1) Max.Gain=

2) Beam width=

3) Forward power=

4) Reverse power=

5) Return loss=-

6) Impedance=

Radiation Pattern:

Conclusion: The dipole antenna was analyzed on the antenna trainer kit. Field Strength of various angle were obtained and radiation pattern were plotted for same

Upon completion of experiment students will be able to:

Demonstrate the radiation pattern of the dipole antenna, compute the performance parameters practically and compare the performance parameters with the standard parameters.

Oral Question Bank

Theory Question Bank

Q. No

Description

1

Define antenna

2

Define Radiation pattern

3

What are the two types of radiation pattern

4

What is the relationship between effective aperture and directivity?

5

Write the principle of pattern multiplication?

6

Define Beam solid angle or beam area?

7

Define beam efficiency?

8

Define directivity?

9

Define antenna gain?

10

Define effective aperture?

11

What is collecting aperture?

12

Define HPBW?

13

Define FBR?

14

Define BWFN?

15

What is dipole?

16

What are factors affecting dipole antenna gain?

17

Dipole antenna is generally used for which frequency range?

18

What is VSWR?

19

What is refection coefficient?

20

What is return loss?

21

List the formulae for

a) Reflection coefficient

b) VSWR

c) Return loss

Of Dipole Antenna

22

What are the parameters to be considered for the design of a dipole antenna?

23

Explain the special features of dipole antenna?

24

What is the main advantage of dipole antenna?

25

Draw the radiation pattern for Dipole antenna?

26

With suitable diagram, discuss the construction and operation of a dipole antenna?

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