Signal Quantization :

Consider an analog signal whose range is from 0 to 10 V. If we want to convert this signal into digital form and required output is 4 bit digital signal then 4 bit binary number will represent 16 different values 0 to 15. Therefore the resolution of our conversion is = V. Thus an analog signal of 0V is represented by 0000; V will be represented by 0001, 6V will be represented by 1001 and 10V will be represented by 1111. All these samples are multiple of V. A question now arises regarding the conversion of numbers that fall between the successive incremental level e.g. for 6.2 V analog signal this falls between (1001) and
(1010). As it is closer to (1001) we treat it as 6V and code it as 1001. This process is called as quantization. Because of this process error is introduced in the coding called as quantization error.